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SYMPOSIUM
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 31-33

Antimicrobial activity of sugar-based semisolid polyherbal ayurvedic formulation: Chyawanprash


1 Bioactive Natural Product Laboratory, Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Hamdard University, New Delhi, India
2 Dabur Research and Development Center, Sahibabad, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India

Date of Web Publication13-Apr-2016

Correspondence Address:
Sayeed Ahmad
Bioactive Natural Product Laboratory, Faculty of Pharmacy, Hamdard University, New Delhi - 110 062
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2394-6555.180159

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  Abstract 

Objective: This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of chloroform (CHCl3) extracts of chyawanprash (Dabur India Ltd., Uttar Pradesh, India) and hydrolyzed chyawanprash against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus on nutrient agar media using cup plate method. Materials and Methods: CHCl3extracts of chyawanprash were prepared directly as well as by previously hydrolyzing with dilute HCl. Three test groups of 10, 20, and 50 mg/ml were prepared for each CHCl3extract, whereas ampicillin 20 mg/ml was used as standard group. Further, six agar plates were prepared for each group, i.e., three for E. coli and three for S. aureus. Cups were bored on each plate with the help of steel cup borer and cups on each plate were marked for identification. Extracts of different concentrations (i.e., 10, 20, and 50 mg/ml) were poured into cups and all plates were then incubated at 37°C for 48 h. After incubation, plates were observed for bacterial growth and zone of inhibition were measured. Results: Results showed that both CHCl3as well as hydrolyzed CHCl3extract of chyawanprash showed concentration-dependent antimicrobial activity. The largest zone of inhibition was observed at the concentration of 50 mg/ml of both CHCl3extracts of chyawanprash (12.7 ± 1.5 mm for E. coli and 15.0 ± 1.0 mm for S. aureus) and hydrolyzed chyawanprash (14.3 ± 0.6 mm for E. coli and 16.3 ± 0.6 mm for S. aureus). Conclusion: Chyawanprash possesses promising potential for use as an antimicrobial agent.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, chyawanprash, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus


How to cite this article:
Khan MA, Kanjilal S, Gupta A, Ahmad S. Antimicrobial activity of sugar-based semisolid polyherbal ayurvedic formulation: Chyawanprash. Drug Dev Ther 2016;7:31-3

How to cite this URL:
Khan MA, Kanjilal S, Gupta A, Ahmad S. Antimicrobial activity of sugar-based semisolid polyherbal ayurvedic formulation: Chyawanprash. Drug Dev Ther [serial online] 2016 [cited 2017 Jun 25];7:31-3. Available from: http://www.ddtjournal.org/text.asp?2016/7/1/31/180159


  Introduction Top


Chyawanprash is an ayurvedic formulation frequently consumed in India. Chyawanprash is a comprehensive herbal tonic, prepared from around 50 herbs. Emblica officinalis is the basic ingredient of chyawanprash. It has shown to possess good antiamnesic and cognition enhancing properties.[1],[2] Chyawanprash is also reported to reduce postprandial glycemia in the oral glucose tolerance test and blood cholesterol level.[3] Administration of chyawanprash has been shown to prevent cisplatin-induced acute renal toxicity.[4] This study was undertaken to explore the antimicrobial effects of chyawanprash of Dabur India Ltd., which is being marketed in India.


  Materials and Methods Top


Preparation of extracts

Preparation of chloroform extract of chyawanprash

Twenty gram of formulation was extracted by suspending in 50 ml of water. Further, the aqueous extract was fractionated with 100 ml of chloroform (CHCl3) by putting the same in separating funnel for 30 min with occasional shaking and repeating the process thrice to ensure complete extraction. All the three extracts were pooled, evaporated to dryness on water bath. This residue obtained was dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to get different concentrations, which was used (0.1 ml each) for antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli/Staphylococcus aureus on nutrient agar media by cup plate method.

Preparation of chloroform extract (previously hydrolyzed with dilute HCl)

Twenty gram of chyawanprash was suspended in 50 ml dilute HCL followed by heating it on reflux condenser for 20 min. This was then extracted with CHCl3 using separating funnel after cooling as mentioned above. Pooled extracts were evaporated to dryness and residue obtained was dissolved in DMSO to get different concentrations which were used (0.1 ml each) for antimicrobial activity against E. coli/S. aureus on nutrient agar media by cup plate method.

Preparation of seeded agar plates

Preparation of nutrient agar medium

Twenty gram of nutrient agar medium was dissolved in 1 L of double distilled water and heated for 20 min. After heating, it was poured into five conical flasks (250 ml), flasks were cotton plugged, and plug was covered with aluminum foil and sterilized by autoclaving.

Preparation of base layer

Sterilized nutrient agar medium was poured into sterile petri plates under aseptic condition (laminar flow) and allowed to cool for preparation of base layer.

Inoculation of plates

One ml of bacterial culture (E. coli or S. aureus) was mixed with 3 ml of sterile agar medium and thoroughly mixed. This liquid was then aseptically poured over base layer and allowed to cool to form seed layer. After preparation, agar plates were marked from the bottom side for identification of different cups and plates as well as bacteria.

Total six plates were prepared for each group and divided as three for E. coli and three for S. aureus. Cups were bored on each plate with the help of steel cup borer and cups on each plate were marked for identification. Extracts of different concentrations were poured into cups of both the bacteria.

All plates will then be incubated at 37°C for 48 h. After incubation, plates were observed for bacterial growth and zone of inhibition was measured.


  Results and Discussion Top


Plates were prepared, inoculated, incubated, and successfully observed. Extracts of chyawanprash showed antimicrobial activity as evident from the observation of zone of inhibition. Results showed that both CHCl3 as well as hydrolyzed CHCl3 extracts of chyawanprash showed concentration-dependent antimicrobial activity [Table 1]. The largest zone of inhibition was observed at the concentration of 50 mg/ml of both CHCl3 extracts of chyawanprash (12.7 ± 1.5 mm for E. coli and15.0 ± 1.0 mmfor S. aureus) and hydrolyzed chyawanprash (14.3 ± 0.6 mm for E. coli and16.3 ± 0.6mmfor S. aureus). Hydrolyzed extract showed highest activity at 50 mg/ml concentration viz.,84% of standard [Table 2]. It may be postulated that the antimicrobial activity of CHCl3 extract of chyawanprash may be attributed to the presence of medium polar and some nonpolar constituents of formulation. Whereas higher activity of hydrolyzed CHCl3 extract may be because of the presence of some aglycones of glycosides present in different constituents of plant formulation.
Table 1: Zone of inhibition (Z) of different extracts of Chyawanprash (n=3)

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Table 2: Percentage activity of different extracts compared to standard

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  Conclusion Top


Chyawanprash has a good antimicrobial activity.

Acknowledgment

Authors thank Dabur India Ltd., Uttar Pradesh, India, for providing gift samples of chyawanprash.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
  References Top

1.
Parle M, Bansal N. Antiamnesic activity of an ayurvedic formulation chyawanprash in mice. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2011;2011:898593.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Bansal N, Parle M. Beneficial effect of chyawanprash on cognitive function in aged mice. Pharm Biol 2011;49:2-8.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Manjunatha S, Jaryal AK, Bijlani RL, Sachdeva U, Gupta SK. Effect of chyawanprash and Vitamin C on glucose tolerance and lipoprotein profile. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2001;45:71-9.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Menon A, Krishnan Nair CK. Ayurvedic formulations ameliorate cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity: Preclinical studies on brahma rasayana and chyavanaprash. J Cancer Res Ther 2013;9:230-4.  Back to cited text no. 4
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2]



 

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