|Year : 2016 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 96-106
Significance of molecular markers in pharmacognosy: A modern tool for authentication of herbal drugs
Karishma Chester1, Ennus T Tamboli2, Sarvesh K Paliwal1, Sayeed Ahmad2
1 Department of Pharmacy, Banasthali University, Tonk, Rajasthan, India
2 Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India
|Date of Web Publication||27-Sep-2016|
Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi - 110 062
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Quality evaluation of herbal preparation is an elementary requirement of industry and other association dealing with Ayurvedic and herbal products. The growing use of botanical products now a days is forcing to assess these agents and to develop standards of quality and produce. An attempt has been made through this article to highlight the use of molecular markers for botanicals with special reference to Indian herbal medicine. As the desire for herbal-based products becomes ingrained in our society but standardization of botanicals offers many obstacles like the controversial identity of various plants, deliberated adulteration of plant material, ensuring quality is much more than discovery, specification, and process control. It also includes awareness of every aspect of a manufacturing process from research to shipping. Extensive research on DNA-based molecular markers is in progress for its great utility in the herbal drug analysis and widely used for the authentification of plant species of medicinal importance. DNA markers are reliable for information as the genetic composition is unique for each species and is not affected by age, physiological conditions, as well as environmental factors. DNA markers offer several advantages over conventional phenotypic markers, as they provide data that can be analyzed objectively.
Keywords: Botanicals, genetic markers, herbal drugs, quality control
|How to cite this article:|
Chester K, Tamboli ET, Paliwal SK, Ahmad S. Significance of molecular markers in pharmacognosy: A modern tool for authentication of herbal drugs. Drug Dev Ther 2016;7:96-106
|How to cite this URL:|
Chester K, Tamboli ET, Paliwal SK, Ahmad S. Significance of molecular markers in pharmacognosy: A modern tool for authentication of herbal drugs. Drug Dev Ther [serial online] 2016 [cited 2017 Nov 19];7:96-106. Available from: http://www.ddtjournal.org/text.asp?2016/7/2/96/191164
| Introduction|| |
In the last two decades, DNA marker technologies have been revolutionized the plant pathogen genomic analysis and have been extensively employed in many fields of molecular plant pathology. Molecular markers offer also the possibility of faster and accurate identification and early detection of plant pathogen. , DNA-based molecular markers have utility in the fields such as taxonomy, physiology, embryology, and genetics DNA-based techniques have been widely used for authentication of plant species of medicinal importance. 
| Molecular Marker|| |
DNA sequence with a known location on a chromosome and associated with a particular gene or trait is known as a genetic marker. It is a variation, which may arise due to mutation or alteration in the genomic loci. A short DNA sequence may be a genetic marker, for example, a sequence surrounding a single base-pair change (single nucleotide polymorphism), or like mini satellites - A long one [Figure 1]. 
Desirable properties of ideal DNA markers
- Easily available
- Assay is easy and rapid
- Highly polymorphic and reproducible
- Co-dominant inheritance and recurrent occurrence in genome
- Selectively neutral to environmental conditions or management practices
- Data exchange between different laboratories should be easy
- High genomic abundance.
It is really difficult to get a molecular marker of above criteria. Depending on the type of study undertaken, a marker system can be recognized that would fulfill the above characteristics. 
| Basic Molecular Marker Techniques|| |
Basic marker techniques can be classified into three categories:
- Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques
- Non-PCR-based techniques or hybridization based techniques
- Microsatellite-based marker techniques [Figure 2].
Polymerase chain reaction-based techniques
In the case of PCR-based markers, the primers of known sequence and length are used to amplify genomic and cDNA sequences which are visualized by gel electrophoresis technique. The invention of PCR which is a very versatile and extremely sensitive technique,  contributes to use a thermostable DNA polymerase and lead to the development of various molecular marker techniques. 
Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA markers
A single species of primer anneals to the genomic DNA at two different sites on complimentary strands of the DNA template. After PCR amplification, a discrete DNA product is obtained if these priming sites are within the amplification range of each other. The introduction of this system produces amplification of several discrete loci. 
DNA amplification fingerprinting
In this technique, a single arbitrary primer of only five bases is used to amplify the DNA by PCR. For this marker assay gives simple banding patterns, much-optimized reaction conditions are required and are useful for DNA fingerprinting. Such banding patterns are analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.  Arbitrary primed PCR (AP-PCR).
DNA amplification patterns are obtained using single primer of 10-50 bases long in PCR and annealing is carried out under nonstringent conditions. 
Sequence characterized amplified regions
Sequence characterized amplified regions (SCARs) are similar to sequence tagged sites (STS) markers but in comparison to random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) they are more reproducible. Although SCARS are mostly dominant markers, also behave as co-dominant markers by digesting them with tetra cutting restriction enzymes. Sex identification of papaya has been carried out using SCAR marker. 
Cleaved amplification polymorphic sequence
PCR primers for this process can be synthesized based on sequence information in databank and the electrophoretic patterns are obtained using restriction enzyme digestion of the PCR products. ,
Randomly amplified microsatellite polymorphism
The methodology of these PCR based markers is that first the genomic DNA is amplified using the arbitrary (RAPD) primers. The amplified products thus obtained are then separated electrophoretically and the dried gel is hybridized with microsatellite oligonucleotide probes. Many advantages of oligonucleotide fingerprinting,  RAPD  and microsatellite primed-PCR are thus combined in randomly amplified microsatellite polymorphism. , Advantages include speed of the assay, high sensitivity, high level of variability detected and no requirement of prior DNA sequence information. 
| Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism|| |
Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was developed for detection of genomic restriction fragments by PCR amplification, thus fingerprinting patterns are obtained. AFLP is an ingenious combination of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and PCR.  In the detection of polymorphism between closely related genotypes AFLP is extremely useful. ,
| Nonpolymerase Chain Reaction-based Techniques|| |
In the hybridization-based markers or non-PCR based marker, the DNA profiles are visualized by hybridizing the restriction enzyme digested DNA to a labeled probe which is a DNA fragment of known/unknown sequence.
Restriction fragment length polymorphism
The RFLP analysis consists of, restriction endonuclease digested genomic DNA is resolved by gel electrophoresis and then blotted on to a nitrocellulase membrane.  Specific banding patterns are then visualized by hybridization with a labeled probe. RFLP are very reliable markers on linkage analysis and breeding and are co-dominant in nature. To constructs a genetic map RFLPs were used for the 1 st time to construct a genetic map. 
Detailed below are the modifications of the RFLP marker system.
Sequence tagged sites
In this, RFLP probes specifically linked to a desired trait can be converted into PCR based STS oligonucleotide primers based on nucleotide sequence of the probe giving a polymorphic band pattern. This is extremely useful for studying the relationship among several species at a specific locus. 
Allele specific associated primers
Specific allele is sequenced and on the base of this sequence, specific primers are designed for DNA template amplification. From this, a single fragment at stringent annealing temperature condition is obtained, and there are used to tag given plant and the gene of interest. 
Expressed sequence tag markers
These are introduced for obtaining partial sequencing of random cDNA clones. They are also useful in genome sequencing and mapping programs. 
Single strand conformation polymorphism
This is a powerful and popularly used technique for detection of point mutations. It can identify heterozygosity of DNA fragments of the same molecular weight. 
| Microsatellites and Minisatellites|| |
In virtually all eukaryotic species, 30-90% of the genome is constituted of repetitive DNA, and its nature is highly polymorphic. Microsatellites and minisatellites is one major form of repetitive DNA.  With a monomer repeat length of about 11-60 bp, microsatellites are short tandem repeats or simple sequence repeats of 1-6 bp length, repeated several times. Thus, micro and minisatellites form an ideal marker system which simultaneously create complex banding system and detect multiple DNA loci simultaneously. These dominant fingerprinting markers, exhibit high level heterozygosity, and are of Mendelian inheritance. 
Detailed below are minisatellite and microsatellite sequence based markers.
Sequence tagged microsatellites sites
Using specific primers designed from sequence 22 data of a specific loci, DNA polymorphism is detected. Primers complementary to the flanking regions of the simple sequence repeat loci yield high polymorphism. For clear banding pattern Di-, tri- and tetra-nucleotide microsatellites are more popular for sequence tagged microsatellites sites analysis.  For diversity analysis, dinucleotides which are generally abundant in the genome have been used. 
Directed amplification of minisatellite-region DNA
In this case, minisatellites are used as primers for DNA amplification. It is introduced for the 1 st time and is found to be useful for species differentiation and cultivar identification. ,
Inter simple sequence repeat markers
This technique was reported for amplifying genomic DNA at the 3'end. They are mostly dominant markers. Number of primers can be synthesized for various combinations of di-, tri-, and tetra and penta-nucleotides. 
| Advances in Molecular Marker Techniques|| |
Molecular marker techniques have made advances through incorporation of modification in the methodology leads to evolution of several basic techniques.
Chloroplast DNA and mitochondrial DNA are considered to study the genetic structure and phylogenetic relationships in plants, organelle and genome. Compared to nuclear alleles, chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes, due to their uniparental mode of transmission, exhibit different patterns of genetic differentiation.  Thus, for a widespread understanding of plant population delineation and evolution, three interrelated genomes must be considered, namely nuclear microsatellites, chloroplast and mitochondrial microsatellites have also been developed. Chloroplast microsatellites consisting of relatively short and several mononucleotide sequences are ubiquitous and polymorphic components of chloroplast DNA.  Chloroplast genome-based markers uncover genetic discontinuities and distinctiveness among or between taxa with slight morphological differentiation, which nuclear DNA markers cannot reveal sometime. 
Sequence-related amplified polymorphism
Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) is based on two-primer amplification, mainly 17-21 nucleotides in length. For polymorphism detection SCRAP uses pairs of primers with AT- or GC-rich cores to amplify intragenic fragments. The amplification of open reading frames is the aim of SCRAP technique, SRAP combines simplicity, reliability, moderate throughput ratio, and facile sequencing of selected bands. 
Target region amplification polymorphism
The Target region amplification polymorphism technique is a PCR-based convenient technique, which utilizes expressed sequence tag (EST) database information and bioinformatics to generate around targeted candidate gene sequences, polymorphic markers. The fixed primer is designed from the targeted EST sequence in the database; the second primer is an arbitrary primer with either an AT- or GC-rich core to anneal with an intron or exon. 
Transposable elements-based molecular markers
The mobile genetic elements which are capable of changing their location in the genome are known as transposons and were discovered in maize almost 60 years ago. Transposable elements, consists of two broad classes and each with its own characteristics properties.  Retroelements, such as retrotransposons, short interspersed nuclear elements, and long interspersed nuclear elements, it is the element-encoded mRNA, and not the element itself, that forms the transposition intermediate. The original copy remains intact at the donor site each transposition event creates a new copy of transposons. In contrast, Class II consists of DNA transposons, which change their location in the genome by a "cut and paste" mechanism.
Retrotransposon-based molecular markers
Retrotransposons are the major class of repetitive DNA comprising 40-60% of the entire genome in plants with large genomes.  Retrotransposons can be divided into three categories based on structural organization and amino acid similarities among their encoded reverse transcriptases. Long terminal direct repeats (LTRs) flank two of these categories and they encode proteins similar to the retroviruses. These LTR-retrotransposons are known as gypsy-like and copia-like retrotransposons. The LINE1-like or non-LTR retrotransposons are third class of retrotransposons and they lack terminal repeats and encode proteins with significantly less similarity to those of the retroviruses. The replicating process of retrotransposons is by successive transcription, reverse transcription, and insertion of the new cDNA copies back into the genome, copia-like , and gypsy-like retrotransposons  are present throughout the plant kingdom.
Inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism and retrotransposon-microsatellite amplified polymorphism
Based on the position of given LTRs within the genome inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism (IRAP) and REMP are two amplification based marker methods which have been developed. Proximity of two LTRs using outward-facing primers annealing to LTR target sequences generate the IRAP markers. In retrotransposon-microsatellite amplified polymorphism, amplification between LTRs proximal to simple sequence repeats such as constitutive microsatellites produces markers. 
Sequence-specific amplification polymorphism
The technique was first used to investigate the location of BARE-1 retrotransposons in the barley genome.  In principle, it is a simple modification of the standard AFLP protocol. 
Retrotransposon-based insertion polymorphism
Using the PDR1 retrotransposon in the pea, this technique was developed this technique requires the sequence information of the 50 and 30 regions flanking the transposons. 
| RNA-based Molecular Markers|| |
Biological responses and developmental programming are regulated by the precise control of genetic expression. Obtaining in depth information about these processes necessitates the study of differential patterns of gene expression. PCR-based marker techniques, such as, cDNA, AFLP, and RNA fingerprinting by arbitrarily primed Polymerase chain reaction (RAP-PCR) are used for differential RNA study selective amplification of cDNAs. Replicated tests show that cDNA-single strand conformation polymorphism reliably separates duplicated transcripts with 99% sequence identity. 
RNA fingerprinting by arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction
Arbitrarily primer at low stringency for first and second strand cDNA synthesis followed by PCR amplification of cDNA population involves fingerprinting of RNA populations. The method requires nanograms of total RNA and is unaffected by low levels of genomic DNA contamination. 
cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism
A novel RNA fingerprinting technique to display differentially expressed genes is cDNA-AFLP technique.  The methodology includes digestion of cDNAs by two restriction enzymes followed by ligation of oligonucleotide adapters and PCR amplification using primers complementary to the adapter sequences with additional selective nucleotides at the 30 end.  The cDNA-AFLP technique is a more stringent and reproducible than RAP-PCR. 
| DNA Barcoding|| |
Apart from other technique, it is a dominant method for species identification and discovery since other methods have various limitations and cannot be used in a large scale or in an efficient manner. DNA barcoding uses a short genetic marker in an organism's DNA to identify it as belonging to a particular species. It distinguishes from molecular phylogeny in that the main aim is not to determine classification but to identify an unknown sample in terms of a known classification.  Although barcodes are sometimes used in an effort to identify unknown species or assess whether species should be combined or separated, such usage, if possible at all, pushes the limits of what are barcodes capabilities. 
Comparison of various aspects of widely used molecular marker techniques [Table 1].
|Table 1: Examples of some medicinal plants and different marker used for various studies and their results|
Click here to view
[TAG:2]Applications are Prospect of Pharmaceutical Sciences[/TAG:2]
Pharmacognosy generally related to quality-control issues using routine organoleptic parameters of crude drugs. DNA-based techniques have been widely used for authentication of plant species of medicinal importance. Since certain rare and expensive medicinal plant species are often adulterated or substituted by morphologically similar, easily available, or less expensive species. For example, Swertia chirata is frequently adulterated or substituted by the cheaper Andrographis paniculata, therefore, additional methods of identification at the species level have been sought and genome-based methods have been developed for the identification of medicinal plants starting in the early 1990's. ,,, This work was greatly facilitated by the invention of the PCR and the introduction of a heat-stable DNA polymerase from the thermophilic bacterium. At present, a practical and powerful tool, i.e. DNA barcodes, is developed for identifying medicinal plants and their adulterants in trade and for ensuring safety in their use.  (CBOL Plant Working Group, 2009). Among the PCR-based molecular techniques, RAPD is convenient in performance and does not require any information about the DNA sequence to be amplified.  Due to its procedural simplicity, the use of RAPD as molecular markers for taxonomic and systematic analyses of plants.  As well as in plant breeding and the study of genetic relationships, has considerably increased.  Recently, RAPD has been used for the estimation of genetic diversity in various endangered plant species. ,,,,
This technique remains important in plant genome research with its applications in pharmacognostic identification and analysis.
Genetic markers can be used to study the relationship between an inherited disease and its genetic cause (e.g., a particular mutation of a gene that results in a defective protein). Genetic markers have to be easily identifiable, associated with a specific locus, and highly polymorphic, because homozygotes do not provide any information. The methods used to study the genome or phylogenetics is RFLP, AFLP, RAPD, SSR. They can be used to create genetic maps of whatever organism is being studied. The presence of different alleles due to a distorted segregation at the genetic markers is indicative of the difference between selected and nonselected livestock. Endosomal sorting receptors, useful as molecular markers to define plant endosomal compartments are, for example, the vacuolar sorting receptor (VSR) BP-80 from pea (Pisum sativum) and its Arabidopsis homolog AtELP1, which are known to predominantly associate with prevacuolar compartments/multivesicular bodies. 
Molecular markers in pharmaceutics relate to drugs and drug development, for example, in silico drug profiling of the human kinome based on a molecular marker for cross-reactivity.  Molecular markers focus on molecular mechanistic approaches to the development of bio-available drugs as well as concentrates on the integration of applications of the chemical and biological sciences to advance the development of new drugs and delivery systems.
Other application in plant genome
Examples of some medicinal plants and different marker used for various studies [Table 2].
|Table 2: Comparison of various aspects of widely used molecular marker techniques|
Click here to view
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Bridge PD, Singh T, Arora DK. The application of molecular markers in the epidemiology of plant pathogenic fungi. In: Arora DK, Bridge PD, Bhatnagar D, editors. Fungal Biotechnology in Agricultural, Food, and Environmental Applications. USA: CRC Press; 2003.
Schmidt H, Taniwaki MH, Vogel RF, Niessen L. Utilization of AFLP markers for PCR-based identification of Aspergillus carbonarius
and indication of its presence in green coffee samples. J Appl Microbiol 2004;97:899-909.
Joshi K, Chavan P, Warude D, Patwardhan B. Molecular markers in herbal drug technology. Curr Sci India 2004;87:2.
Srivastava S, Mishra N. Genetic markers - A cutting-edge technology in herbal drug research. J Chem Pharm Res 2009;1:1-18.
Saiki RK, Scharf S, Faloona F, Mullis KB, Horn GT, Erlich HA, et al.
Enzymatic amplification of beta-globin genomic sequences and restriction site analysis for diagnosis of sickle cell anemia. Science 1985;230:1350-4.
Saiki RK, Gelfand DH, Stoffei S, Scharf SJ, Higuchi R, Horn GT, et al
. Primer-directed enzymatic amplification of DNA with a thermostable DNA polymerase. Nature 1988;239:487-97.
Welsh J, McClelland M. Fingerprinting genomes using PCR with arbitrary primers. Nucleic Acids Res 1990;18:7213-8.
Caetano-Anollés G, Bassam BJ, Gresshoff PM. DNA amplification fingerprinting using very short arbitrary oligonucleotide primers. Biotechnology (N Y) 1991;9:553-7.
Welsh J, Honeycutt RJ, McClelland M, Sobral BW. Parentage determination in maize hybrids using the arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR). Theor Appl Genet 1991;82:473-6.
Parasnis AS, Gupta VS, Tamhankar SA, Ranjekar PK. A highly reliable sex diagnostic PCR assay for mass screening of papaya seedlings. Mol Breed 2000;6:337-44.
Konieczny A, Ausubel FM. A procedure for mapping Arabidopsis
mutations using co-dominant ecotype-specific PCR-based markers. Plant J 1993;4:403-10.
Jarvis P, Lister C, Szabo V, Dean C. Integration of CAPs markers into the RFLP map generated using recombinant inbred lines of Arabidopsis thaliana
. Plant Mol Biol 1994;24:685-7.
Epplen JT. The methodology of multilocus DNA fingerprinting using radioactive or nonradioactive oligonucleotide probe specific for simple repeat motifs. Adv Electrophor 1992;5:55-112.
Williams JG, Kubelik AR, Livak KJ, Rafalski JA, Tingey SV. DNA polymorphisms amplified by arbitrary primers are useful as genetic markers. Nucleic Acids Res 1990;18:6531-5.
Weising K, Nybom H, Wolff K, Meyer W. DNA fingerprinting of plants and fungi. USA: Boca Raton. CRC Press; 1995. p. 1-3.
Gupta M, Chyi YS, Romero-Severson J, Owen JL. Amplification of DNA markers from evolutionarily diverse genomes using single primers of simple-sequence repeats. Theor Appl Genet 1994;89:998-1006.
Richardson T, Cato S, Ramser J, Kahl G, Weising K. Hybridization of microsatellites to RAPD: A new source of polymorphic markers. Nucleic Acids Res 1995;23:3798-9.
Zabeau M. Selective Restriction Fragment Amplification a General Method for DNA Fingerprinting. European Patent Application Publication No. 0534858A1; 1993.
Saiki RK, Gelfand DH, Stoffel S, Scharf SJ, Higuchi R, Horn GT, et al.
Primer-directed enzymatic amplification of DNA with a thermostable DNA polymerase. Science 1988;239:487-91.
Erlich HA, Gelfand D, Sninsky JJ. Recent advances in the polymerase chain reaction. Science 1991;252:1643-51.
Southern EM. Detection of specific sequences among DNA fragments separated by gel electrophoresis. J Mol Biol 1975;98:503-17.
Botstein D, White RL, Skolnick M, Davis RW. Construction of a genetic linkage map in man using restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Am J Hum Genet 1980;32:314-31.
Bustos A, Solier C, Jouve N. Analysis of PCR-based markers using between species of Hordeum
). Genome 1999;42:129-38.
Gu WK, Weeden NF, Yu J, Wallace DH. Large-scale, cost-effective screening of PCR products in marker-assisted selection applications. Theor Appl Genet 1995;91:465-70.
Adams MD, Kelley JM, Gocayne JD, Dubnick M, Polymeropoulos MH, Xiao H, et al.
Complementary DNA sequencing: Expressed sequence tags and human genome project. Science 1991;252:1651-6.
Orita M, Suzuki Y, Sekiya T, Hayashi K. Rapid and sensitive detection of point mutations and DNA polymorphisms using the polymerase chain reaction. Genomics 1989;5:874-9.
Litt M, Luty JA. A hypervariable microsatellite revealed by in vitro
amplification of a dinucleotide repeat within the cardiac muscle actin gene. Am J Hum Genet 1989;44:397-401.
Jeffreys AJ, Wilson V, Thein SL. Hypervariable 'minisatellite' regions in human DNA. Nature 1985;314:67-73.
Hearne CM, Ghosh S, Todd JA. Microsatellites for linkage analysis of genetic traits. Trends Genet 1992;8:288-94.
Rafalski JA, Vogel JM, Morgante M, Powell W, Andre C, Tingey SV. Generating and using DNA markers in plants. In: Birren B, Lai E, editors. Nonmammalian Genomic Analysis. San Diego, CA, USA: Academic Press; 1996. p. 75-134.
Heath DD, Iwama GK, Devlin RH. PCR primed with VNTR core sequences yields species specific patterns and hypervariable probes. Nucleic Acids Res 1993;21:5782-5.
Somers DJ, Zhou Z, Bebeli PJ, Gustafson JP. Repetitive, genome-specific probes in wheat (Triticum aestivum
L. em Thell) amplified with minisatellite core sequences. Theor Appl Genet 1996;93:982-9.
Zietkiewicz E, Rafalski A, Labuda D. Genome fingerprinting by simple sequence repeat (SSR)-anchored polymerase chain reaction amplification. Genomics 1994;20:176-83.
Provan J, Russell JR, Booth A, Powell W. Polymorphic chloroplast simple sequence repeat primers for systematic and population studies in the genus Hordeum Mol Ecol 1999;8:505-11.
Powell W, Morgante M, McDevitt R, Vendramin GG, Rafalski JA. Polymorphic simple sequence repeat regions in chloroplast genomes: Applications to the population genetics of pines. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1995;92:7759-63.
Wolfe KH, Li WH, Sharp PM. Rates of nucleotide substitution vary greatly among plant mitochondrial, chloroplast, and nuclear DNAs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1987;84:9054-8.
Provan J, Powell W, Hollingsworth PM. Chloroplast microsatellites: New tools for studies in plant ecology and evolution. Trends Ecol Evol 2001;16:142-7.
Chung SM, Staub JE. The development and evaluation of consensus chloroplast primer pairs that possess highly variable sequence regions in a diverse array of plant taxa. Theor Appl Genet 2003;107:757-67.
Li G, Quiros CF. Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP), a new marker system based on a simple PCR reaction: Its application to mapping and gene tagging in Brassica
. Theor Appl Genet 2001;103:455-546.
Finnegan DJ. Eukaryotic transposable elements and genome evolution. Trends Genet 1989;5:103-7.
Grzebelus D. Transposon insertion polymorphism as a new source of molecular markers. J Fruit Ornamental Plant Res 2006;14:21-9.
Kumar A, Bennetzen JL. Plant retrotransposons. Annu Rev Genet 1999;33:479-532.
Voytas DF, Cummings MP, Koniczny A, Ausubel FM, Rodermel SR. copia-like retrotransposons are ubiquitous among plants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1992;89:7124-8.
Kumar A. The adventures of the Ty1-copia group of retrotransposons in plants. Trends Genet 1996;12:41-3.
Kalendar R, Grob T, Regina M, Suoniemi A, Schulman A. IRAP and REMAP: Two new retrotransposon-based DNA fingerprinting techniques. Theor Appl Genet 1999;98:704-11.
Waugh R, McLean K, Flavell AJ, Pearce SR, Kumar A, Thomas BB, et al.
Genetic distribution of Bare-1-like retrotransposable elements in the barley genome revealed by sequence-specific amplification polymorphisms (S-SAP). Mol Gen Genet 1997;253:687-94.
Vos P, Hogers R, Bleeker M, Reijans M, van de Lee T, Hornes M, et al.
AFLP: A new technique for DNA fingerprinting. Nucleic Acids Res 1995;23:4407-14.
Flavell AJ, Knox MR, Pearce SR, Ellis TH. Retrotransposon-based insertion polymorphisms (RBIP) for high throughput marker analysis. Plant J 1998;16:643-50.
Cronn RC, Adams KL. Quantitative analysis of transcript accumulation from genes duplicated by polyploidy using cDNA-SSCP. Biotechniques 2003;34:726-30, 732, 734.
Welsh J, Chada K, Dalal SS, Cheng R, Ralph D, McClelland M. Arbitrarily primed PCR fingerprinting of RNA. Nucleic Acids Res 1992;20:4965-70.
Bachem CW, van der Hoeven RS, de Bruijn SM, Vreugdenhil D, Zabeau M, Visser RG. Visualization of differential gene expression using a novel method of RNA fingerprinting based on AFLP: Analysis of gene expression during potato tuber development. Plant J 1996;9:745-53.
Bachem CW, Oomen RJ, Visser GF. Transcript imaging with cDNA-AFLP: A step-by-step protocol. Plant Mol Biol Rep 1998;16:157.
Liang P, Pardee AB. Differential display of eukaryotic messenger RNA by means of the polymerase chain reaction. Science 1992;257:967-71.
Kress WJ, Wurdack KJ, Zimmer EA, Weigt LA, Janzen DH. Use of DNA barcodes to identify flowering plants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2005;102:8369-74.
Seberg O, Petersen G. How many loci does it take to DNA barcode a crocus? PLoS One 2009;4:e4598.
Shaw PC, Wang J, But PP. Authentication of Chinese Medicinal Materials by DNA Technology. Singapore: World Science; 2002.
Techen N, Crockett SL, Khan IA, Scheffler BE. Authentication of medicinal plants using molecular biology techniques to compliment conventional methods. Curr Med Chem 2004;11:1391-401.
Sucher NJ, Carles MC. Genome-based approaches to the authentication of medicinal plants. Planta Med 2008;74:603-23.
Hao da C, Yang L, Huang B. Molecular evolution of paclitaxel biosynthetic genes TS and DBAT of Taxus
species. Genetica 2009;135:123-35.
Chen S, Yao H, Han J, Liu C, Song J, Shi L, et al.
Validation of the ITS2 region as a novel DNA barcode for identifying medicinal plant species. PLoS One 2010;5:e8613.
Weder JK. Influence of experimental conditions on the reproducibility of RAPD-PCR identification of legumes and cereals. Lebensm Wiss Technol 2002;35:233-8.
Bartish IV, Garkava LP, Rumpunen K, Nybom H. Phylogenetic relationship and differentiation among and within population of Chaenomeles
) estimated with RAPDs and isozyme. Theor Appl Genet 2000;101:554-63.
Ranade SA, Farooqui N, Bhattacharya E, Verma A. Gene tagging with random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker for molecular breeding in plants. Crit Rev Plant Sci 2001;20:251-75.
Wang C, Zhou TH, Yang X, Guo J, Zhao GF. Identification of seven plants of Gynostemma
BL. by ISSR-PCR. Chin Tradit Herbal Drugs 2008;39:588-91.
Lu HP, Cai YW, Chen XY, Zhang X, Gu YJ, Zhang GF. High RAPD but no cpDNA sequence variation in the endemic and endangered plant, Heptacodium miconioides
). Genetica 2006;128:409-17.
Liu P, Yang YS, Hao CY, Guo WD. Ecological risk assessment using RAPD and distribution pattern of a rare and endangered species. Chemosphere 2007;68:1497-505.
Li G, Quiros CF. Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP), a new marker system based on a simple PCR reaction: Its application to mapping and gene tagging in Brassica
. Theor Appl Genet 2001;103:455-546.
Tse YC, Mo B, Hillmer S, Zhao M, Lo SW, Robinson DG, et al.
Identification of multivesicular bodies as prevacuolar compartments in Nicotiana tabacum
BY-2 cells. Plant Cell 2004;16:672-93.
Zhang X, Fernández A. In silico
drug profiling of the human kinome based on a molecular marker for cross reactivity. Mol Pharm 2008;5:728-38.
Mehdi RM, Tabatabaei BE, Arzani A, Etemad N. Assessment of genetic diversity among and within Achillea
species using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Biochem Syst Ecol 2009;37:354-61.
Ahlawat A, Katoch M, Ram G, Ahuja A. Genetic diversity in Acorus calamus
L. as revealed by RAPD markers and its relationship with β-asarone content and ploidy level. Sci Hortic 2010;124:294-7.
Ge XJ, Yu Y, Yuan YM, Huang HW, Yan C. Genetic diversity and geographic differentiation in endangered Ammopiptanthus
(Leguminosae) populations in desert regions of Northwest China as revealed by ISSR analysis. Ann Bot 2005;95:843-51.
Lin SF, Tsay HS, Chou TW, Yang MJ, Cheng KT. Genetic variation of Anoectochilus formosanus
revealed by ISSR and AFLP analysis. J Food Drug Anal 2007;15:156-62.
Singh A, Chaudhury A, Srivastava PS, Lakshmikumaran M. Comparison of AFLP and SAMPL markers for assessment of intra-population genetic variation in Azadirachta indica
A. Juss. Plant Sci 2002;162:17-25.
Thendral BH, Premalakshmi V, Sekar T. Genetic diversity in Azima tetracantha
(Lam) assessed through RAPD analysis. Indian J Sci Technol 2010;3:685-7.
Darokar MP, Khanuja SP, Shasany AK, Kumar S. Low levels of genetic diversity detected by RAPD analysis in geographically distinct accessions of Bacopa monnieri.
Genet Resour Crop Evol 2001;48:555-8.
Vanijajiva O, Sirirugsa P, Suvachittanont W. Confirmation of relationships among Boesenbergia
) and related genera by RAPD. Biochem Syst Ecol 2005;33:159-70.
Shaw RK, Charya L, Mukherjee AK. Assessment of genetic diversity in a highly valuable medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus
using molecular markers. Crop Breed Appl Biotechnol Braz Soc Plant Breed 2009;9:52-9.
Qiu YX, Hong DY, Fu CX, Cameron KM. Genetic variation in the endangered and endemic species Changium smyrnioides
). Biochem Syst Ecol 2004;32:583-96.
Shao QS, Guo QS, Deng YM, Guo HP. A comparative analysis of genetic diversity in medicinal Chrysanthemum morifolium
based on morphology, ISSR and SRAP marker. Biochem Syst Ecol 2010;38:1160-9.
Djè Y, Tahi GC, Zoro Bi IA, Malice M, Baudoin JP, Bertin P. Optimization of ISSR marker for African edible-seeded Cucurbitaceae
species' genetic diversity analysis. Afr J Biotechnol 2006;5:83-7.
Mandal AB, Thomas VA, Elanchezhian R. RAPD pattern of Costus specious
Koen ex. Retz., an important medicinal plant from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Port Blair, India: Biotechnology Section, Central Agricultural Research Institute; 2007.
Paris HS, Yonash N, Portnoy V, Mozes-Daube N, Tzuri G, Katzir N. Assessment of genetic relationships in Cucurbita pepo
(Cucurbitaceae) using DNA markers. Theor Appl Genet 2003;106:971-8.
Tyagi RK, Agrawal A, Mahalakshmi C, Hussain Z, Tyagi H. Low-cost media for in vitro
conservation of turmeric (Curcuma longa
L.) and genetic stability assessment using RAPD markers. In Vitro
Cell Dev Biol Plant 2007;43:51-8.
Khan S, Mirza KJ, Abdin MZ. Development of RAPD markers for authentication of medicinal plant Cuscuta reflexa.
Eur J Bio Sci 2007;4:1-7.
Ding G, Li X, Ding X, Qian L. Genetic diversity across natural populations of Dendrobium officinale
, the endangered medicinal herb endemic to China revealed by ISSR and RAPD markers. Russ Genet 2009;45:375-82.
Gavidiai I, Agudo LD, Bermúdez PP. Digitalis obscura
selection and long-term cultures of high-yielding Digitalis obscura
plants RAPD markers for analysis of genetic stability. Sci Hortic 1996;121:197-205.
Chuang SJ, Chen CL, Chen JJ, Wei YC, Sung JM. Detection of somaclonal variation in micro-propagated Echinacea purpurea
using AFLP marker. Sci Hortic 2009;120:121-6.
Prakash S, Grobbelaar N, Van Staden J. Diversity in Encephalartos woodii
collections based on Random Amplified DNA markers (RAPD's) and Inter-Specific Sequence Repeats (ISSR's). S Afr J Bot 2008;74:341-4.
Birmeta G, Nybom H, Bekele E. RAPD analysis of genetic diversity among clones of the Ethiopian crop plant Ensete ventricosum Euphytica.
J Genet 2002;124:315-25.
Guasmi F, Ferchichi A, Farés K, Touil L. Identification and differentiation of Ficus carica
L. cultivars using inter simple sequence repeat markers. Afr J Biotechnol 2006;5:1370-4.
Albani MC, Battey NH, Wilkinson MJ. The development of ISSR-derived SCAR markers around the Seasonal Flowering Locus (SFL) in Fragaria vesca
. Theor Appl Genet 2004;109:571-9.
Xiong H, Luo B, Zheng Y, Cui Y, Zhang Y, Wu Q, et al
. Genomic DNA extraction and RAPD analysis for Gastrodia elata
Bl. (Orchidaceae) using an improved method. J Bio Sci 2012;12:206-8.
Kaur R, Panwar N, Saxena B, Raina R, Bharadwaj SV. Genetic stability in long-term micropropagated plants of Gentiana Kurroo
- An endangered medicinal plant. J New Seed 2009;10:236-244.
Fracaro F, Echeverrigaray S. Genetic variability in Hesperozygis ringens
), an endangered aromatic and medicinal plant of southern Brazil. Biochem Genet 2006;44:471-82.
Yong ZY, Geng Y, Tashi TT, Liu N, Wang Q, Zhong Y. High genetic differentiation and low genetic diversity in Incarvillea younghusbandii
, an endemic, plants of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, revealed by AFLP markers. Biochem Syst Ecol 2009;37:589-96.
Devaiah K, Balasubramani SP, Venkatasubramanian P. Development of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA based SCAR marker for identification of Ipomoea mauritiana
). Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2011;2011:868720.
Basha SD, Sujatha M. Genetic analysis of Jatropha
species and interspecific hybrid of Jatropha curcas
using nuclear and organelle specific markers. Euphytica 2009;168:197-214.
Ci XQ, Chen JQ, Li QM, Li J. AFLP and ISSR analysis reveals high genetic variation and inter-population differentiation in fragmented populations of the endangered Litsea szemaois
) from Southwest China. Plant Syst 2008;273:237-46.
Talhinhas PP, Leita J, Neves-Martins J. Collection of Lupinus angustifolius L
. germplasm and characterization of morphological and molecular diversity. Genet Resour Crop Evol 2006;53:563-78.
Yu HH, Yang ZL, Sun B, Liu RN. Genetic diversity and relationship of endangered plant Magnolia officinalis
) assessed with ISSR polymorphism. Biochem Syst Ecol 2011;39:71-8.
Solouki M, Mehdikhani H, Zeinali H, Emamjomeh AA. Study of genetic diversity in Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla
) based on morphological traits and molecular marker. Sci Hortic 2008;117:281-7.
Dey SS, Singh AK, Chandel D, Behera TK. Genetic diversity of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia
L.) genotypes revealed by RAPD markers and agronomic traits. Sci Hortic 2006;109:21-8.
Luan S, Chiang TY, Gong X. High genetic diversity vs. low genetic differentiation in Nouelia insignis
), a narrowly distributed and endemic species in China, revealed by ISSR fingerprinting. Ann Bot 2006;98:583-9.
Hess J, Kadereit JW, Vargas P. The colonization history of Olea europaea
L. in Macaronesia based on internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) sequences, randomly amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPD), and intersimple sequence repeats (ISSR). Mol Ecol 2000;9:857-68.
Carolan JC, Hook IL, Walsh JJ, Hodkinson TR. Using AFLP markers for species differentiation and assessment of genetic variability of in vitro-cultured Papaver Bracteatum
(Section Oxytona). In Vitro
Cell Dev Biol Plant 2002;38:300-7.
Chaurasia AK, Subramaniam VR, Krishna B, Sane PV. RAPD based genetic variability among cultivated varieties of Aonla (Indian Gooseberry, Phyllanthus emblica
L.) Physiol Mol Biol Plants 2009;15:169-73.
Barazani O, Dudai N, Golan-Goldhirsh A. Comparison of mediterranean Pistacia lentiscus
genotypes by random amplified polymorphic DNA, chemical and morphological analyses. J Chem Ecol 2003;29:1939-52.
Abhyankar G, Reddy VD, Giri CC, Rao KV, Lakshmi VV, Prabhakar S, et al
. Amplified fragment length polymorphism and metabolomic profiles of hairy roots of Psoralea corylifolia
L. Phytochemistry 2005;66:2441-57.
Hu Y, Wang L, Xie X, Yang J, Li Y, Zhang H. Genetic diversity of wild populations of Rheum tanguticum
endemic to China as revealed by ISSR analysis. Biochem Syst Ecol 2010;38:264-74.
Wang Y, Li XE, Li XD, Qi JJ, Sun P, Zhou LL. Analysis of genetic diversity of wild Rehmannia glutinosa
by using RAPD and ISSR markers. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2008;33:2591-5.
Hu Y, Wang L, Xie X, Yang J, Li Y, Zhang H. Genetic diversity of wild populations of Rheum tanguticum
endemic to China as revealed by ISSR analysis. Biochem Syst Ecol 2010;38:264-74.
Xia T, Chen S, Chen S, Zhang D, Gao Q, Ge X. ISSR analysis of genetic diversity of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau endemic Rhodiola chrysanthemifolia
). Biochem Syst Ecol 2007;35:209-14.
Elameen A, Klemsdal SS, Dragland SM, Fjellheim S, Rognli OA. Genetic diversity in a germplasm collection of roseroot (Rhodiola rosea
) in Norway studied by AFLP. Biochem Syst Ecol 2008;36:706-15.
Zhao F, Liu F, Liu J, Put O, Ang J, Duan D. Genetic structure analysis of natural Sargassum muticum
(Fucales, Phaeophyta) populations using RAPD and ISSR markers. Appl Phycol 2008;20:191-8.
Kochieva EZ, Khussein IZ, Legkobit MP, Khadeeva NV. The detection of genome polymorphism in Stachys
species using RAPD. Russ J Genet 2002;38:516-20.
Muchugi A, Muluvi GM, Kindt R, Kadu CA, Simons AJ, Jamnadass RH. Genetic structuring of important medicinal species of genus Warburgia
as revealed by AFLP analysis. Tree Genet Genome 2008;4:787-95.
Dhar RS, Verma V, Suri KA, Sangwan RS, Satti NK, Kumar A, et al
. Phytochemical and genetic analysis in selected chemotypes of Withania somnifera.
[Figure 1], [Figure 2]
[Table 1], [Table 2]