|Year : 2017 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 13-16
An ayurvedic formulation Sankat Mochan: A potent anthelmintic medicine
Khomendra Kumar Sarwa1, Prabhat Kumar Vishwakarma2, Vijendra Kumar Suryawanshi3, Tilotma Sahu3, Lokesh Kumar3, Jaya Shree2
1 Department of Pharmacy, Government Girl's Polytechnic, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India
2 Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Ghasidas Central University, Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh, India
3 Shri Rawatpura Sarkar Institute of Pharmacy, Kumhari, Durg, Chhattisgarh, India
|Date of Web Publication||18-Oct-2017|
Khomendra Kumar Sarwa
Department of Pharmacy, Government Girl's Polytechnic, Raipur, Chhattisgarh
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Aim and Object: Sankat Mochan is an ayurvedic formulation used in the urban and rural area of India. This polyherbal formulation is used for general stomach problems including abdominal cramping and diarrhea. The present investigation evaluated the anthelmintic activity of an aqueous solution of an ayurvedic medicine Sankat Mochan. Materials and Method: Various concentrations (1%, 5%, and 10%) of medicine were used for anthelmintic activity on Pheretima posthuma. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml) was used as a reference standard and distilled water as a control. Result and Conclusion: The result showed that the Sankat Mochan possess anthelmintic activity more potent than that of piperazine citrate. Thus, Sankat Mochan may be used as a potent anthelmintic agent against helminthiasis.
Keywords: Anthelmintic, Pheretima posthuma, Piperazine citrate, Sankat Mochan
|How to cite this article:|
Sarwa KK, Vishwakarma PK, Suryawanshi VK, Sahu T, Kumar L, Shree J. An ayurvedic formulation Sankat Mochan: A potent anthelmintic medicine. Drug Dev Ther 2017;8:13-6
|How to cite this URL:|
Sarwa KK, Vishwakarma PK, Suryawanshi VK, Sahu T, Kumar L, Shree J. An ayurvedic formulation Sankat Mochan: A potent anthelmintic medicine. Drug Dev Ther [serial online] 2017 [cited 2018 Apr 21];8:13-6. Available from: http://www.ddtjournal.org/text.asp?2017/8/1/13/216933
| Introduction|| |
Helminthic infections are the most common and widespread of all the infections in human being, affecting a large proportion of the world populations. Diseases caused by helminth parasites in livestock continue to be a major productivity constraint, especially in small ruminants in the tropics and subtropics. Helminthiasis is rampant globally but is more common in developing country with poor personal and environmental hygiene. Weakness, loss of appetite, and reduced weight gain, are common symptoms of infection. Helminths consume nutrients from their host, thereby causing or aggravating malnutrition which results in retard growth and physical development, blood loss, injury to organs, and intestinal or lymphatic obstruction. Therefore, symptoms such as retard cognitive development, iron-deficiency anemia, eosinophilia, pneumonia abdominal pains are characteristic features of most helminth infections. Parasitic diseases such as lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, and schistosomiasis cause ruthless morbidity affecting the principal population in endemic areas. The morbidity due to parasitic diseases has been increasing in our population. Anthelmintics are drugs that are used to treat infections with parasitic worms, including both flatworms, e.g. flukes, tapeworms and roundworms, i.e., nematodes. Anthelmintics drugs either kill (vermicides) or expel (vermifuge) infesting helminths. Now a day natural products are getting special attention for their health benefits. Therefore we try to derive new chemical substances from natural sources for helminth control.
Sankat Mochan is an ayurvedic multiherbal formulation marketed in the Chhattisgarh. Sankat Mochan is considered as an over-the-counter medicine and very easily available in pharmacy and provision stores also. In the Chhattisgarh State, it is used for the stomach cramping and diarrhea. The manufacturer claim its therapeutic application for treating diarrhea, cough, asthma, fever and cholera. In the present investigation we explore the additional pharmacological activity of this Ayurvedic preparation. Sankat Mochan was examined for its anthelmintic potential on Pheretima posthuma. At present, no data and information are reported, so this study explore its another therapeutic application and provide a scientific evidence for its use.
| Materials and Methods|| |
Drug and chemicals
Sankat Mochan is an ayurvedic medicine manufactured by L.P. Nagar & Co., 1/2390, (L.P. Nagar Road, Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, India) was purchased from a retail drug stores. Piperazine citrate (Aglowmed Pharmaceuticals Ltd., New Delhi) was purchased from a local pharmacy retail shop. Different concentrations (1%, 5%, and 10%) of Sankat Mochan were prepared by diluting in distilled water. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml) was used as a reference and distilled water was used as a control.
Collection of warms
The P. posthuma was collected from a gardening area of Shri Rawatpura Sarkar Institute of Pharmacy, Kumhari (Durg), Chhattisgarh, India, washed with distilled water to remove all soil matter. The P. posthuma of 3–5 cm in length and 0.1–0.2 cm in width were used for all the experimental protocol.
All animal experiments were carried out according to the ethical guidelines for animal care and “Guidelines of the Animal Investigation Committee of Shri Rawatpura Sarkar Institute of Pharmacy Kumhari”. Collected animals were screen out on the basis of anatomical similarity before starting of experiments. Animals were housed in a special fabricated wooden box and feed with the standard diet.
Assessment of anthelmintic activity
The anthelmintic activity was evaluated in P. posthuma due to its anatomical and physiological resemblance with the intestinal roundworm parasites of human beings using previously described procedure. Five groups of approximately equal size P. posthuma consisting of five in each group were released into 50 mL of respective solution. Respective group was treated with distilled water (control), piperazine citrate (10 mg/mL), and Sankat Mochan (1%, 5%, and 10%). Observations were made for the time of paralysis and death of individual worms. Paralysis assumed to occur when the worms did not revive and death was assumed when the worms lost their motility, follow by fading away of their body color.
The data obtained were expressed as mean ± standard error of mean (SEM). Statistical analysis were performed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Newman–Keuls multiple comparison test. P < 0.005 was considered statistically significant.
| Results|| |
Sankat Mochan is a liquid formulation, dark brown in color having a characteristic odor. It is dispensed in an amber color narrow mouth bottle. The image of marketed Sankat Mochan formulation is presented in [Figure 1]. Five milliliter of liquid Sankat Mochan formulation contains camphor 150 mg, ajwain 75 mg, peppermint 37.5 mg, clove oil 0.075 ml, dalchini 0.020 ml, fennel oil 0.020 ml, and eucalyptus oil 0.100 ml. One-way ANOVA followed by Newman–Keuls multiple comparison test was performed to assess its effect. The results revealed that piperazine (standard drug) showed both vermifuge (paralysis) and vermicidal (death) activity as compared to control group with F value 77.40 (P < 0.0001) and F value 116.2 (P < 0.0001), respectively. A Sankat Mochan 1%, 5%, and 10% formulation showed significant vermifuge activity against standard drug with F value 51.93 (P < 0.0001), 66.51 (P < 0.0001), and 73.53 (P < 0.0001), respectively. The result of vermicide activity of Sankat Mochan was F value 130.9 (P < 0.0001) for 1%, F value 88.92 (P < 0.0001) 5%, and F value 106.3 (P < 0.0001) for 10% formulation as compared to standard drug. The comparative results are depicted in [Figure 2] and [Figure 3]. Our test drug Sankat Mochan showed potent anthelmintic activity as compared to both control and standard drug.
|Figure 2: Effect of different drug on the paralysis of Pheretima posthuma. Different groups of Pheretima posthuma (n = 5) were treated with either control or piperazine (10 mg/ml) or Sankat Mochan (1%, 5%, 10%). Time (in min) taken for paralysis was recorded. Each bar represents mean ± standard error of mean data from five animals. ***P < 0.0001 versus control and ###P < 0.0001 versus standard (one-way repeated measures analysis of variance followed by Newman–Keuls multiple comparisons test)|
Click here to view
|Figure 3: Effect of different drug on the death of Pheretima posthuma. Different groups of Pheretima posthuma (n = 5) were treated with either control or piperazine (10 mg/ml) or Sankat Mochan (1%, 5%, 10%). Time (in min) taken for death was recorded. Each bar represents mean ± standard error of mean of data from five animals. ***P < 0.0001 versus control and ###P < 0.0001 versus standard (one-way repeated measures analysis of variance followed by Newman–Keuls multiple comparisons test)|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
The present investigation shows that Sankat Mochan has a potent anthelmintic activity. At different concentrations (1%, 5%, and 10%), it showed paralysis as well as the death of P. posthuma. Anthelmintic activity of Sankat Mochan is due to the presence of certain active substances such as camphor (Cinnamomum camphora), ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi), clove oil (Eugenia caryophyllus), dalchini (Cinnamomum zylanicum), fennel oil (Foeniculum vulgare), eucalyptus oil (Eucalyptus globulus), and peppermint (Mentha arvensis). E. caryophyllus has been used in Ayurveda and Western herbal medicine as a carminative and aromatic. It has recently been popularized as a vermicide. Bark and leaves of C. zylanicum are used as carminative and antimicrobial. Leaves of E. globulus are used as antiseptic and antimicrobial. F. vulgare is used as carminative, antimicrobial, and expectorant. Fennel is a gentle home remedy useful for many stomachs and intestinal discomforts and gastrointestinal spasms. M. arvensis is used as carminative, flavoring agent, antiseptic, and as an analgesic. It is also reported as refrigerant, helpful on a toothache, and able to kill intestinal worms. Leaves and seeds of T. ammi are used for stomach diseases, common cold, migraine, rheumatism, mouth ulcer, and ear ache.E. globulus is an essential oil, used for respiratory problem such as asthma, bronchitis and tuberculosis. It relieves congestion and improves breathing in asthma and cold. The essential oil of Eucalyptus contains cineole, a potent antiseptic that helps in killing the bacteria and fungi.
Previous reports suggest that T. ammi has anthelmintic activity. Anthelmintic effect of T. ammi is due to potentiation of ATPase activity, which interferes with metabolism, and depletes energy reserves of helmithes. It has also been reported to exhibit cholinergic activity, may help in the expulsion of intestinal parasites by increasing peristaltic movement in gut.M. arvensis, C. zylanicum, E. caryophyllus, and E. globulus all are source of terpenoids, and terpenoids are well established drugs use as antiseptic, anthelmintics, counterirritant, insecticide, and pesticides and this pharmacological activity of terpenoids may contribute to the anthelmintic activity of Sankat Mochan.
| Conclusion|| |
Conventionally, Sankat Mochan is used for abdominal-related problem. Our study shows that Sankat Mochan has potent anthelmintic activity (vermicide and vermifuse), which is more potent than piperazine (used as reference standard). Thus, Sankat Mochan may be used as an anthelmintic drug besides its other uses.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Perry BD, Randolph TF, McDermott JJ, Sones KR, Thornton PK. Investing in Animal Health Research to Alleviate Poverty. Nairobi: International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI); 2002. p. 148-9.
Sarwa KK, Rudhrapal M. A short report on medicinal plants and ethanobotanical practices of Balod District, Chhattisgarh India. In: Book 'Ethnobotanical Studies in India'. Ch. 20. Deep Publications New Delhi: Published by Conservator of Forests, Jharkhand, Government of India; 2014:243-45.
Perry MR, Prajapati VK, Menten J, Raab A, Feldmann J, Chakraborti D, et al
. Arsenic exposure and outcomes of antimonial treatment in visceral leishmaniasis patients in Bihar, India: A retrospective cohort study. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2015;9:e0003518.
Tagboto S, Townson S. Antiparasitic properties of medicinal plants and other naturally occurring products. Adv Parasitol 2001;50:199-295.
Taur DJ, Kulkarni VB, Patil RY. Chromatographic evaluation and anthelmintic activity of Eucalyptus globulus
oil. Pharmacognosy Res 2010;2:125-7.
Kumar HK, Bose A, Raut A, Sahu SK, Raju MB. Evaluation of anthelmintic activity of Pistia stratiotes
Linn. J Basic Clin Pharm 2010;1:103-5.
Bin Karim MF, Imam H, Sarker MM, Uddin N, Hasan N, Paul N, et al
. Free radical scavenging, antidiarrheal and anthelmintic activity of Pistia stratiotes
L. extracts and its phytochemical analysis. Pak J Pharm Sci 2015;28:915-20.
Balkrishna A. Ayurved Jadi Buti Rahasya. Haridwar: Divya Prakashan; 2005.
Rao PK, Hasan SS, Bhellum BL, Manhas RK. Ethnomedicinal plants of Kathua district, J&K, India. J Ethnopharmacol 2015;171:12-27.
Roy S, Chaurvedi P, Chowdhary A. Evaluation of antiviral activity of essential oil of Trachyspermum ammi
against Japanese encephalitis virus. Pharmacognosy Res 2015;7:263-7.
Dagli N, Dagli R, Mahmoud RS, Baroudi K. Essential oils, their therapeutic properties, and implication in dentistry: A review. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent 2015;5:335-40.
Zarshenas MM, Krenn L. Phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of Salvia mirzayanii
Rech. f. & Esfand. J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med 2015;20:65-72.
Mukherjee N, Mukherjee S, Saini P, Roy P, Babu SP. Phenolics and Terpenoids; the promising new search for anthelmintics: A critical review. Mini Rev Med Chem 2016;16:1415-41.
[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]